Solar energy is a renewable energy source that benefits not only you but also the environment. The effort you put into making solar panels in your home can help reduce the use of fossil fuels and prevent environmental pollution.  Interview with X Source Expert Jay Gabbay Solar Contractor Expert. August 4, 2020. Even better, you can save on your electricity bill. To make your own solar panel, you need to assemble the pieces, connect the cells, make the panel box, connect the panels, seal the box, and finally install the finished solar panel.
assembly of pieces
Buy cells. There are several types of solar cells available for purchase, and most good choices are made in the US, China, or Japan. However, the most cost-effective option is probably a polycrystalline cell. The number of cells you need to buy depends on how much energy you want to produce. Specifications must be stated when purchasing the cell.
Buy additional features. These cells are very weak.
Cells are readily available online through websites like Ebay, but some can be purchased at your local hardware store.
If the manufacturer shipped with wax, you may need to clean the wax from the cell. To do this, do not immerse it in hot, but boiling water.
Each cell should cost no more than $1.30 per watt.
Measure and cut the backing board. To attach the cells, you need a thin plate made of a non-conductive material such as glass, plastic, or wood. Place the cells in the order you want them to be used, measure them, and cut the board to that size.
Leave an extra inch or two on each end of the board. This space is used for the wires holding the rows together.
Wood is a more common support material of choice because it is easy to drill holes. A hole must be drilled for the cell wire to pass through.
Measure and cut all strands. If you look at the polycrystalline cell, you can see a lot of small lines going in one direction (long distance) and two large lines going in the other direction (short distance). If you want to run two large rows and connect them behind the next cell in the array, you need to connect the tap wire. Measure the length of this larger line, double the length, and cut two pieces for each cell.
Flow through the workspace. Using a flow pen, run 2-3 lines of flow along each cell strip or group of 3 squares. You need to do this on the back of the cell. This prevents the soldering heat from causing oxidation.
Solder the tabs. Melt a thin layer of solder on the back of the cell strip using a soldering iron.
This step is not required if you purchase a pre-welded schedule. This is often a better option because it cuts the time in half, heats the cell only once, and reduces solder waste. But more expensive.
Connect the wires to the cell. Heat the first half of the stranded wire piece with a soldering iron. Then attach the end of the wire to the cell. Repeat this threading process for each cell.
connect the cells
Paste the cells on the board. Apply a small amount of glue to the center of the back of the cell and slide it into place on the board. The strand wires must run in one straight line through each row. Make sure both ends of the tab wire protrude between the cells and can move freely, leaving only two pieces between each cell.
One row must run in the opposite direction to the next row so that the tab wires protrude from the end of the row and the other side of the next row.
You should plan to place cells in long rows with fewer rows. For example, 3 rows of 12 cells are each laid out long side to long side.
Don’t forget to leave an extra 2.5 cm at both ends of the board.
Solder the cells together. Apply the flux to each cell along two thick lines (contact pads). Then take the free part of the tabbing wire and solder it over the entire length of the pad.
The tab wires attached to the back of one cell must in each case be connected to the front of the next cell.
Connect the first row using bus wires. At the beginning of the first row, solder the tab wires to the front of the first cell. The tab wire should be approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) longer than needed to cover the wire and should extend into the additional gap on the board. Solder these two wires together with a piece of carrier wire the same size as the space between the thick wires in the cell.
Connect the second row. Connect the end of the first row to the beginning of the second with a long piece of bus wire that runs between the wire on the edge of the board and the furthest wire in the next row. As with the first, additional tab wires must be fitted in the first cell of the second row.
Connect all four wires to this bus wire.
Continue connecting the remaining rows. Continue connecting rows to long bus wires until you reach the end. Here again we connect to the short bus wire.
Create your own billboard box
Measure the cell plate. Measure the area occupied by the board on which the cells are placed. The box must be at least this size. Add an inch to each side to make room for the sides of the box. After adding the boards, leave 1″ x 1″ (2.5cm x 2.5cm) free space in each corner, if not available.
Make sure there is enough space for the bus wires at the ends.
flat back cut. Cut a piece of plywood to the size measured in the previous step and the area on the side of the box. Depending on what is available, you can use a table saw or a jigsaw.
formation side. Measure two 1″ x 2″ (2.5 cm x 5 cm) non-conductive boards along the long side of the bottom of the box. Then measure two more 1″ x 2″ (2.5cm x 5cm) planks to fit this long piece and complete the box. Cut these measured pieces and secure them together using deck screws and joints.
It’s important that the sides aren’t too long as the sun can shade the cells when it’s coming from an acute angle.
Attach the sides. Use the deck screws to turn the side top and bottom to secure the side to the bottom of the box. The number of screws used per side depends on the length of one side, but no less than 3 screws of any length should be used.
Draw a box. You can paint the box any color you like. Consider using white or reflective colors. This keeps the box cooler and the cells work better when cold. If you use paint designed for outdoor use, the painting will last longer. This type of paint helps to protect the wood from the elements.
Attach the solar module to the box. Attach the solar module to the finished box. Make sure it is safe and the cells face up and can be exposed to sunlight. Also, make sure there are two holes in the board to allow both ends of the bus wires to pass through.
Connect the terminal bus wires to the diodes. Take a diode slightly larger than the mains on the board, connect it to the bus wire and secure it with silicone. The bright colored terminal of the diode should indicate where the negative terminal of the battery goes. The other end must be connected to the negative end of the board.
This prevents power returning from the battery through the solar panel when not charging.
Connect another wire. Connect the black wire to the diode and to the terminal block that must be mounted to the side of the box. Then connect the white wire from the short bus wire on the other side to the terminal block.
Connect the board to the charge controller. Buy a charge controller, attach the board to the controller and make sure the positive and negative connections are correct. Use color-coded wires to run wires from the terminal block to the charge controller to trace the charge.
If you are using more than one board, you can use grommets to connect all the positive and negative wires together to get two wires.
Connect the charge controller to the battery. Buy a battery that matches the size of the board you made. Connect the charge controller to the battery according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Use batteries. Once the battery is connected and charged on the board or on the board, you can run electronics on the battery depending on how much power you need.
Get a piece of plexiglass. Buy a piece of plexiglass cut to fit the box made for the board. You can buy it from a specialty store or your local hardware store.
Glass is brittle and brittle, so use plexiglass, not glass.
Attach the block stop to the glass. Cut 1″ x 1″ (2.5cm x 2.5cm) wooden blocks to fit the corners. It should be high enough to pass through the terminal block, but low enough to fit under the edge of the box. Glue this stopper with wood glue.
Insert plexiglass. Place the plexiglass in the box so that the glass rests on the block. Carefully screw the plexiglass into the block using appropriate screws and drills.
Fund sealing. Use silicone sealant to seal the edges of the box. Also, seal any gaps to make this box as watertight as possible. Apply sealant properly according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Install your own panel
Install the panel on the cart. One option is to build a panel and mount it on a cart. This will place the board at an angle, but you can change the direction the board faces to increase the amount of sun it receives per day. However, this requires adjusting the plate 2-3 times a day.
Install panels on the roof of the house. This is a popular way to install panels because they tend to get the most sunlight and are out of the way. However, the angle must match the sun’s path and maximum load time. This will limit your overall exposure to only certain times of the day.
This option is best if you have a large number of panels and you have very little floor space to place them.
Mount the panel on the satellite stand. Mounts commonly used to mount satellite dishes can also be used to mount solar panels. It can also be programmed to move with the sun. However, this option only works if you have few solar panels.